History of Political, Faith and Fiqh Sects in Islam

Product Code : 0000000169134
Muhammed Abu ZehraHisar Publishing House
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  • Contributing Translator Abdülkadir Şener, Hasan Karakaya, Kerim Aytekin Salat and greetings to our Prophet Muhammed (s.a.v.), Who was sent as mercy to the worlds. In addition, the salat and greetings of his Companions, who are the leaders of guidance, who show the right way with their life and who are followed in their footsteps. He was the Companions of Hz. The Prophet (pbuh) said the following about them: "My companions are like the stars. You will find the right path if you follow any of them." I received many requests to write a book on Islamic sects. A book that makes some difficult to understand issues easily understood, enlightens some issues, that the cultured section will not have difficulty in understanding and reveals the intellectual importance of Islamic sects ... Islamic sects are divided into some genres with different orientations. These species can be grouped roughly into three groups. Itikadi sects are political sects and fiqh sects.

    Size: 17.00x24.00
    Number of Pages: 783
    Date of Publication: 2011
    Translated by Kerim Aytekin
    Cover Type: Hardcover
    Paper Type: 2nd Pulp
    Language: Turkish
    Format: Book


    Aziz Reader,

    We are pleased to present to you this valuable book that explains the scientific geniuses and sects of our great sect Imams, whose knowledge, belief, courage and bravery, whose knowledge, belief, courage and courage are not diminished in the languages ​​and hearts, are the best understanding and explaining our exalted religion after the blessings of Allah Almighty the Prophet and his distinguished Companions.

    In this work; It was explained how these great people, with their vast knowledge of judgments, examined the orders of Allah and his Messenger to the finest detail, discovered the vast corners of the Shari'ah sea and offered them to the service of humanity.

    It has been explained what difficulties they faced during their work, that they were brutalized or even tortured, but they never gave up and never made concessions to their opponents.

    Thus, one of the great study books of our age has emerged, enabling all Muslims to learn more easily about the lives of these great religious Imams.

    The great master who wrote this work, which we have presented in the translation in this century, is Muhammed Ebu Zehra. We have learned with great sorrow that this precious person, one of the great professors of Islamic Law of our age who devoted his life to Islamic sciences, left us forever in 1974, we wish him mercy from Allah.

    Honorable Haşan Karakaya and Kerim Aytekin have translated the first part of the work. The translation of the second part of the work was done by Dr. Abdülkadir Şener did it. We would like to thank the translators who carefully reviewed it during its preparation.

    Praise be to Allah, who made it anticipated to present such a work to our reader; We ask him to perpetuate such blessings and grants.

    Tevfik is from Allah ...




    Praise is to Allah almighty. We praise him and ask him for help. We seek forgiveness of our sins, we repent to Him, we take refuge in Him from the evil of our souls and the evil of what we do. Whom Allah guides to the right path, there is no one who can lead him astray. And whoever turns him astray, no one can guide him to the right path.

    and Acirc; Hz. Peace be upon Muhammad (S.A.V.), who are the leaders of guidance, who will find the right way if they are obeyed, his bright companions.

    That Companions, the Prophet (S.A.V.), said: "My Companions are like the stars. You will find the right path if you follow any of them."

    The general cultural center of the Ministry of National Education has planned to open the doors to science education, to remove the obstacles in this regard, and to provide facilities for cultured people. Thus, let the intellectuals reap the fruits of every science, and make use of the rational data written in a style that will not overwhelm the public and satisfy the taste of the intellectuals. For this purpose, the Culture Center, which is mentioned, envisaged to publish about a thousand books in the fields of philosophy, history, technical and religious sciences and published many of the works it has programmed to publish in the effort of accomplishing this great work perfectly with the help of Allah (C.C.).

    This successful center asked me to write a book on Islamic sects by facilitating a number of difficult issues and writing them in a way that everyone can understand. This easy work to be produced should be such a work that no one would find it strange, it should be clear, that all cultured people would not have difficulty in understanding the issues it contained, and could easily grasp the thought stages of Islamic sects.

    Islamic sects are divided into various sections according to the issues they examine.

    1) Itikadî sects:

    They did not disagree about the basic issues of belief (such as whether the servant did his work by force or voluntarily), disagreeing on the individual issues that the theologians disagreed with. For example: All sects have agreed on the issue of the unity of Allah, which constitutes the essence of the Islamic belief.

    2) Political sects:
    They disagreed on the election of the Caliph and similar issues. Later we will describe these sects and the method each followed.

    3) Fiqh sects:

    Canon law; It regulates the relations of people with each other, the matters of worship between the servant and Allah, which are declared in the Quran and the Sunnah.

    Studying these topics in detail requires the writing of great works. For this reason, we will try to explain the issues briefly and concisely, while facilitating them. However, although we tried to explain the issues briefly, it was not possible to gather all the topics in one book. For this reason, we will mention only the political and religious sects in this book. We deemed it appropriate to leave the fiqh sects to another book.

    I hope we will be able to present that episode to the readers soon. Success is from God. It is He who guides to the right way. As always, we wish him to grant us success in this business. How beautiful Mawla and what a good helper he is.

    Mohammed EBU ZEHRA


    Preface 7



    24) The fact that the issues in dispute are actually not open and closed 9

    25) Different desires, whims and temperaments 10

    26) Diversity of the branches 10

    27) Imitation of the ancients 11

    28) Different understanding and perception powers 11

    29) The war for leadership and the desire to dominate others 12


    1) Arab racism 14

    2) Caliphate disputes 15

    3) Muslims being neighbors with many of the former religion. 16

    4) To attempt to examine many closed issues 17

    5) Various stories 17

    6) The presence of miiteşabih verses whose meaning cannot be understood absolutely in the Quran 18

    7) Making religious decrees from texts 19


    a) Conflict in the exercise area 19

    b) The controversy in science and theory 21

    1) In the field of thought 21

    2) On the battlefield 21


    * The issues that political sects dispute 25

    * The stages of the dispute over the caliphate issue 26

    Political sects in Islam are religious sects 35

    CHILE 36

    A) Brief explanation 36

    7) The place and time of birth of Shiism 38

    8) The influence of ancient philosophy on the Shia sect 40

    9) Sects of the Shia sect 41

    30) Selbiyye 41

    31) Gourabiye 43


    32) Keysaniye 44

    33) Zaydiyya 47

    Some of Zaydiyya's views 49

    34) Imamiyya 52

    8) İsnaaşeriyye 54

    The position of the caliph according to Imamiyya 54

    9) Ismailiyya 59

    35) Judge 62

    36) Series 62

    37) Nusayriyye 62


    * Common principles of external parties 69

    * Disputes between foreigners 72

    * Discussions by foreigners 74

    External parties 78

    c) Foreigners deemed to be Muslim 79

    d) Foreigners who are not considered Muslim 85

    The view of the Ahlis Sunnah sect on the caliphate 86

    3) Being from the Quraysh tribe 87

    4) Being allegiance 89

    5) Being selected through consultation 91

    6) Being fair 97

    * The status of the caliph who went beyond the conditions of the caliphate 101


    Intro 107

    1- The matter of fate 108

    2- The state of the great sinner 112

    3- Thoughts assuming a philosophical nature 113

    1- JIBRIA 114

    2- KADERİYY E 124

    3- MÜRCİ E 134

    4- MUTEZILE 139

    A- The nature of the Mutazila sect 141

    10) Unity 142

    11) Justice 143

    12) Vad and vaid 144

    13) International range of the brain 144

    14) Amr-i bilma'ruf and nehy-i anil münker 145

    B- Evidence system of Mutazila sect on religious issues 145

    C- Some views of Mutazila Greek philosophy and

    other philosophies 147

    D- Mu'tazilites' defense of Islam 148

    E- Abbasids helping Mutazila 149

    F- According to his contemporaries Mutezile 150

    G- The criticism of the Mutazila by fiqh and hadith scholars 154

    H- Debates of Mutazila 155

    38) Relationships discussed by Mutazila 158

    39) The quarrels of the Mutazila with fiqh and hadith scholars 167

    WIFE 'and Acirc; RİLİK 179

    Ash'ari sect after Imam Ashari 191

    The dispute between his wife and Jibbani 194

    MATURITY 195

    Maturidi's method and views 198

    SELEFİYYÛN (Selcfciler) 210

    * Revelation 213

    ^ The three aspects of revelation 214

    10) The uniqueness of the personality and attributes of Allah 214

    e) Salafists and Constables 215

    f) Converting texts or leaving them as they are 221

    g) Whether the Quran is a creation or not 223

    11) Religion and Genesis 224

    7) Algebra and old man 224

    8) Reasons for verbs 227

    Evaluation of Ibn Taymiyya's views 232

    NEW SIGHTS 235


    Evaluation of Wahhabism 238

    BAHAÎLİK 239

    Evaluation of Bahaism 245



    Preface 263

    Intro 265

    Ijtihad in the Time of the Prophet 267

    Ijtihad in the Age of the Companions 270

    Sources of Fiqh in the Age of the Companions 278

    Ijtihad Methods of the Companions 279

    Ijtihad in the Age of Nature 283

    Icma 'and the Evidence of Companions' Words 288

    Ijtihad in the Period of the Mıictehid Imams 291

    Fiqh in Shia and Kharijids 299

    Political Societies 299

    Excipients 303

    Groups with Fiqh Sects 304

    İtikadi Firkalar 304

    Disputes Between Sects and Its Causes 306

    The Axis of the Dispute 307

    Disputes Around the Book (Quran) 307

    Disagreements on the Sunnah (Hadith) 309

    Disputes on Re 311

    Disputes on Icma 314

    Ijma of the people of Medina 318

    Fatwa and Words of the Companions 320

    Fatwa and Words of the Naturals 323

    Effects of Inter-sectarian Conflict 323

    Purposes of Islamic Provisions 326

    Benefits Observed by Islam 329

    Degrees of Interest 332

    Degrees of Cost in Bids 335

    Removal of Difficulty 338

    No Offer Above Human Power 339

    İjtihad 341

    Terms of Full Ijtihad and Jurisprudence 342

    Degrees of ijtihad and Levels of Mujtahids 350

    Those Who Mighty in Sharia 350

    Miintesib Mujtehidler 354

    Those Who Mighty in Sect 355

    Preferred Mujtahidler '. 355

    The Owner of the Istidl, Mujtehidler 356

    Memory Layer 356

    Mukallid Layer 357

    Dividing Case Law 358

    Iffa (Fatwa) and Conditions Required for Muftis 359


    Imam Zayd 365

    The Birth and Youth of Imam Zayd 367

    Imam Zayd in the Field of Struggle 369

    Hisham b. The Revolt Against Abdıılmelik 372

    Imam Zayd's Entry to War and His Martyrdom 373

    After War 374

    Personality and Character of Imam Zayd .... 376

    Views of Imam Zayd 380

    Views on Politics 381

    Views on Usûlu'd-Din 384

    The Fiqh of Imam Zayd 387

    Work titled El-Mecmu '387

    How Was El-Mecmu Written? 390

    General View of Fiqh and Hadith of Iman Zayd 391

    The Duty of the Mind According to Faith Zayd 394

    The Status of Zaydiyya Fiqh after Imam Zayd 394


    Imam Ja'far-i Sadiq 399

    Birth and Youth 401

    His Opinion on Cosmonautics 404

    Cefr Province 406

    The Science of Imam Jafar 410

    Imam Jafar and Politics 412

    Imam Jafar's Personality and Character 420

    Violation 420

    Clairvoyance and Science 422

    His Generosity 422

    Hilim and Forbearance 423

    Patience and Sukru 424

    Valor, 424

    Firaset 425

    Bag 426

    Views of Imam Jafar 426

    Opinion of Unity 427

    Vision of Destiny 428

    Views on the Quran 429

    Fiqh of Imam Jafar 431


    Imam Abu Hanifa 433

    Born and Youth 434

    435 Towards the End

    True to Fiqh 436

    437 in the Field of Science and Fiqh

    Attachment to a Great Scholar 439

    Master Abu Hanifa 440

    Method of Abu Hanifa 442

    Philosopher Abu Hanife 443

    Personality and Character of Abu Hanife 445

    Life and Political Attitude 450

    Life 451

    Political Attitude 453

    Fiqh of Imam Abu Hanifa 461

    Method 462

    Obvious Qualification of Fiqh 464

    Transfer and Provision of the Hanafi Sect 470

    The Development and Spread of the Hanafi Sect 473

    Countries Where Hanafi Sect Spread 473


    Imam Malik 477

    Ancestry, Birth and Youth 477

    Science Education 479

    His Effort in Science 480

    Sciences 481

    Teachers 483

    Law of Re’y 486 in Medina

    Imam Malik's Beginning of Teaching 488

    Method of Teaching 489

    Imam Malik's Personality and Character 492

    Memory and Intelligence 492

    Patience and Endurance 493


    Imam Malik and Kadis 495

    Firaset 496

    Bag 496

    Imam Malik's Life and Livelihoods 498

    Relationship with the Rulers 501

    Mihneti 502

    Death of 505

    Feedback 506

    The Question of Faith 507

    A Matter of Destiny 507

    The Kebire Issue 508

    The Question of Whether the Quran was Created or Not 508

    The Question of Whether Allah is Seen or Not on Judgment Day 508

    Politics and the Issue of Caliphate 509

    Fiqh and Hadith of Imam Malik 511

    Book 512

    Circumcision 513

    Ameli of the people of Medina 515

    Fatwa of Companions 516

    Comparison, İstihsan and Masâlih-i Müısele 516

    Great Wall-Zerâyi '517

    Artifacts, 518

    519 of his work titled El-Muvatta '

    The Development and Spread of the Maliki Sect 520

    Places Where Maliki Sect Spread 522

    Imam Shafi and His Tomb

    Imam Shafii 525

    Birth and Prose 525

    Early life and upbringing 527

    Under the Auspices of Imam Malik 529

    Assignment 530

    Mihneti 531

    Shafi'i's Return to Knowledge 533

    Coming to Beytu'l-Harâm 535

    Coming Again in Baghdad 536

    A Short Stay in Baghdad 537

    538 in Shafii Egypt

    The Science of Shafi'i 540

    The Orientation and Age of Science 541

    Personality and Character of Shafii 543

    Understanding and Memory Power 543

    The Power of Expression 543

    Clairvoyance and Possibility 544


    Shafi'i Views 546

    Opinion on Khilafah 547

    Shafi'i Fiqh 549

    Sources of Shafi'i Fiqh 550

    The Book and the Sunnah 550

    İcmâ '555

    Sayings of the Companions 557

    Comparison 559

    Shafi's Intelligence Abolition 563

    Shafi'i's Usûl-i Fiqh Studies 564

    Shafi'i Sect 566

    Tahriç 569 in the Shafi'i Sect

    Mtictehidler 569 in the Shafii Sect

    The Spread of the Shafii Sect 571


    Imam Ahnıed b. Flanbel 573

    Birth and Youth 573

    Collection 575

    His Travels for Hadith Collection 576

    The Grave with Ink Pot and Pencil 577

    True to Fiqh 578

    Ahmed b. Did Hanbel know Persian? 580

    Ahmed b. Hanbal's Beginning of Narrating Hadith and Giving Fatwa 580

    Mihneti, Mihnetinin Reasons and Circuits 585

    Ahmad b. About Whether the Quran Was Created Or Not Hanbal and

    Others' Views 590

    Ahmed b. The Life of Hanbal 595

    Caliphs' Refusal to Take Their Benefits and Duty 597

    Personality and Character 602

    Memory 602

    Patience and Endurance 603

    Courtesy 605


    Brace i 607

    Good Manners 608

    Ahmed b. Hanbal's Views 608

    View of Faith 608

    Views on the Great Sins 609

    Views on Fate and Human Acts 610

    View of God on His Attributes 611

    Views on Politics 612

    Ahmed b. Hanbal's Hadith and Fiqh 614

    El-Miisned 615

    Ahmed b. Hanbal's Method of Al-Miisned in the Narrated 617

    Is There A Hadith of Zaif in Al-Musnad? 618

    Ahmed b. The Fiqh of Hanbal 620

    Icma 623

    Comparison 624

    Masâlih 626

    Intelligent 627

    Zeryi 628

    Istishab 630

    The Development and Spread of the Hanbali Sect 630

    Narration of the Sect 630

    Kaviller in the Sect 632

    Development of the Sect 633

    Spread of the Sect 635


    External Sect 637

    David al-Zahiri 638

    The Spread of His Sect 642

    Zahirî Sect in Andalusia 643


    Ibni Hazm 645

    Birth and Youth 646

    From Prosperity to Boredom 647

    Towards the Greatness of Science 648

    Temporary Entry to Politics 650

    Returning to the Mihrab of Knowledge 651

    Returning to Politics 651

    652 years of age

    Travels 653

    Burning of His Books 654

    Return to His Farm in Leble 656

    Personality and Character 657

    Art and Literary Taste 662

    Science of Ibn Hazm 663

    Scientific Method 665

    Mental Method 665

    Spiritual and Moral Studies 667

    Tavku'l - Hamama'si 669

    Methods and Views of the Naklî Sciences 671

    Views of the Covenant 671

    Views on Revelation 672

    Views About Words Expressing Achievements 673

    Views on the Force and the Elderly 674

    Political Views 674

    Opinions About Those Who Process Kebab 677

    Fiqh of Ibn Khasii 677

    Ibtal of Jurisprudence Based on Re 678

    Shari'a Evidences According to Ibni Hazm 680

    Book 680

    Circumcision 681

    Parts of the Sunnah in terms of Narration 682

    İcmâ 686

    Evidence 688

    NassTarm Assay 688

    Istishab 690

    Conclusion 691

    The Spread of the Zahirî Sect 691

    The State of the Zahiri Sect after Ibn Hazm 693


    Ibn Taymiyya 696

    Born 697

    Early life and upbringing 698

    The First Environment Where It Grow Up 700

    The Legacy and Views of Ibn Taymiyya 705

    First Mihneti 707

    Donation to Dessert 709

    Second Mihneti 711

    Return to Damascus 715

    Third Mihneti 719

    The Last Mihneti 720

    Personality and Character 726

    Memory 726

    Contemplation 727

    Ready Response 727

    Freedom of Thought 727

    Violation 728

    Fesahati 728

    Confident, Patience and Endurance 729

    From the Mihrab of Science to the Field of War and Politics 729

    The Age of Ibni Taymiyya 733

    Political Situation 734

    Social Situation 737

    Scientific and Intellectual Situation 738

    Scientific Studies 739

    Sufis and Sufism 741

    and Acirc; Position of limes 743

    The Works of Ibn Taymiyya and Its Effect 746

    Students 749

    Ibn Taymiyya and Wahhabism 750

    Bibliography 753

    Glossary 756

    Index of First Volume 773

    Index of Second Volume 776
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