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Esbâb-ı Nüzül from Fâtiha to Nâs; The Reasons for the Descent of the Qur'anic Verses From Al-Fatiha to Nâs Asbâb-ı Nüzül The Reasons for the Descent of Verses of the Qur'an

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Esbâb-ı Nüzül from Fâtiha to Nâs. The Reasons for the Descent of Verses of the Quran
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    Reasons for the Descent of Verses of the Quran (2 VOLUMES OF IMPORTED PAPER)

    Published Date 2010-01-01
    ISBN 9754540470
    Number of Impressions 3rd Edition
    Language Turkish
    Number of Pages 1007
    Skin Type Bound
    Paper Type Book Paper
    Size 17 x 24 cm

    The Reasons for Descent of Verses of the Qur'an from Fatiha Nasa Esbabı Nuzül


    In the name of the Most Gracious and Most Merciful Allah

    Praise be to Allah, our Lord, and blessings and greetings to His servant and Prophet Muhammad Mustafa.

    Of course, the first information that those who are busy with the Quran and its interpretation will not be dependent on knowledge is the knowledge of asbâb-ı nüzul. What is asbâb-ı nüzul? Asbâb-ı nüzul is the descending environment during the descent of the Qur'anic verses. It is the special preparation of the conditions of the Quranic verses by Hâlik-ı Tealâ. These are the mise-ences that will make the provisions contained in the verses of the Quran to be understood more easily and accurately by the addressees. As a matter of fact, it is the details of the lives of the Prophet and those around him that concern the Quran and the shari'ah it brought, which is what perfection is in these details.

    Therefore, those who want to understand the Quran must first know these details very well, which constitutes the subject of the science of Asbâb-ı nüzul among the sciences of the Quran and Tafsir.

    Unfortunately, it was not possible to find this information collectively in Turkish and other languages ​​in a way that allows comparison, comparison and evaluation. Information about the Esbab-ı nuzul was scattered in hadith journals, sirah books and commentaries. May Allah bless our scholars who compile this information in their works and include them in their works even if they are scattered.

    This mess has been the main factor in the creation of this work, and this work was created with the desire to offer a service, albeit small, to those who want to find information together. If the work satisfies a need in this respect and is sought after by readers and a Muslim makes use of this work in understanding the Quran, we will consider ourselves happy with that eternal peace that those who served the Quran will hear.
    We are not going to claim that our work is perfect. Of course, like any human business, this will have its shortcomings and mistakes. It is our most sincere wish from esteemed readers to inform us of any mistakes they may encounter or deficiencies they will find.

    I would like to end the foreword with thanks to our friend Şaban Kurt, the owner of Çağrı Publishing House, and to the Publishing House staff for publishing this work.

    Effort is from us, and tawfiq is from Allah.


    Prof. Dr. Bedreddin Cetiner
    Istanbul, 30 July 2002


    LOGIN


    Sebebu'n-nüzûl (plural: Esbâbu'n-nüzûl) is a noun phrase consisting of the words "Sebeb" and "Nüzul". The word Sebeb is also used in Turkish in the same sense that it is used in Arabic. Nüzul means "descending, descending, descending". Accordingly, the meaning of the composition means "the reason for landing, the reason for the stroke". With this composition, in the sciences of Tafsir and the Quran, the verses or suras of the Quran are written by the Prophet from Allah or Lawh-i Mahfuz. The reason or reasons for descent to the Prophet (saas) is meant.


    The benefit and role of knowing the reasons for their descent in understanding the Qur'an, in its interpretation and in extracting the necessary provisions from its verses has been an engraved by almost every scholar. Although it is controversial among the scholars whether the generality of the provisions to be derived from the verses can be limited by the reasons of nüzul, it is not an underestimable benefit to know at least the wisdomu't-tasri with them. Especially if it is thought that human beings consult with their minds on almost every issue and decide the right and wrongness of any matter by hitting them according to the measures of the mind, the benefit and importance of knowing the wisdom of the divine and accordingly the scissors-sharia cannot be underestimated.

    It is difficult and even impossible to say that every verse of the Quran was sent down for a reason. Although there is certainly an event that will follow the recurrence of almost every verse during the 23-year-long period, we do not have much of our knowledge on this subject or the rumors that will be the source of our knowledge on this subject. lowers.

    As Esbab-ı nüzul is a field in which there is no re'y and ijtihad, it is only based on narration. Although it is possible to see that the companions are mentioned from time to time in these reports, they are information that can be considered mostly in the form of commentary rather than asbab-ı nüzul. In other words, it consists of an attempt by the Companions to establish a relationship between some events that follow the coming of some verses and those verses, in which the Companions are influenced by the re. However, the information and explanations of the Companions who witnessed the surge are also very important for us, and they open up a wide horizon for the commentator.


    Accordingly, the information about the asbab-ı nuzul is always the information conveyed from the Companions, whether it is the narration of an abstract incident or the reason for the surrender, it is not permissible for us to abandon or keep it out of sight. However, is it permissible to limit tafsir with these? This is the other, and there is also the disagreement of the ulama in this. The majority is inclined to the view that the meanings of the Quranic verses cannot be limited with this information.

    Throughout the history of Islamic sciences, we see that while this information was scattered in commentaries, some scholars wrote works devoted solely to this subject. (Ahmet Nedim Serinsu gave a list of individual studies on this subject in his research entitled The Role of Esbâb-ı Nüzul in Understanding the Quran (İstanbul, January 1994). See p. 75-78)

    The scattered information about the causes of nuzul in the commentaries is also the case for the Turkish commentaries, unfortunately, no independent work has been written in our language to date. Former Konya Mufti Tahsin Emiroğlu's Esbâb-ı Nüzul (Esbâb-ı Nüzûl, which started with the aim of writing an esbab-ı nüzul and later turned into a commentary, started to be published in Konya in 1965, published until the 15th volume (1983), was left unfinished with the death of the author) Apart from the Turkish translation of Abdulfettâh el-Kâdî's Esbâbu'n-Nuzûl ani's-Sahâbe ve'l-Mufessirîn (tere. Salih Akdemir, Fecr Publications, Ankara 1986), we did not come across any comprehensive work that collected the causes of nüzul translated in Turkish.


    Sebebu'n-nüzûl (plural: Esbâbu'n-nüzul) has been described in various ways in Turkish. Zerkani formulated the most mosque description as follows: "The reason for nuzul is the thing that a verse or verses was sent down by mentioning or declaring its verdict in the days it occurred." This is either an event that took place in the period when the verses of the Quran were revealed, or Hz. It consists of a question asked to the Prophet (pbuh) (Zerkanî, Menhilu'l-İrfân, Cairo undated, 1,106).


    As it is indicated above, the narrations regarding the reasons for the nuzul may be various because the Companions tell about the event that the Companions were involved in the rumors to some extent, or the Companions told the event that he witnessed the verses or verses. There may even be some contrast between these narrations. In the meantime, the events that are described as the reason for a verse can be various; From time to time, it is not even possible to identify between them. In the event that multiple events that occurred close to each other in time are described as the reason for the descent of a verse, it is possible to interpret them as the reason for the descent of a verse, for example, in the case of two separate events that took place in Mecca in a narration and in Medina in another narration, this is the reason for the descent of a verse. it is not possible to find between the narrations.

    In this case, it will be necessary to look for other presumptions that will lead to preference, and when faced with two news that cannot be interpreted, for example, when faced with two news that cannot be interpreted, one of them is more authentic and for example, when they encounter two stories, the other is valid, and the other is valid. they cleared the dispute by

    Sometimes, preferences can be made based on the expressions used to report the reason for the fall. While some of these statements are open in reporting the cause of the nipple, some may state a possibility. In other words, some expressions indicating the reason for nuzul can also indicate to be under the command of the verse or to state the meaning of the verse. In this case, of course, the disagreement between the narrations coming with expressions that are clear in reporting the reason for the nüzul are preferred to the other or the others.

    In the event that they cannot find a presumption that would allow a choice in any way, the commentators disagree with the view that the descent of the verse is repeated (repeat of the verse) and the verse is sent down twice. Examples of this will come later in the book.


    Verses that were first sent down from the Quran


    What is the first chapter that was sent down from the Quran? There are various narrations on this subject. There are rumors that the Surah of Alak, the Surah of Muddessir, the Surah Muzzemmil or the Surah of Fatiha is the first chapter to be revealed. There are two opinions about which of the first verse or verses that were sent down from the Quran: the first five verses of the Surah Alak and the Basmalah. Let's give these views:


    a) The news about what was first sent down from the Quran in Abu Davud et-Tayâlisî's Musnad is as follows: Yahya ibn Kesir says: I asked Abu Salama ibn Abdurrahman: Which of the Quran was sent down first? ", He said, "Yâ eyyuha'l-müddessir." I said, "According to what you have reached me, the title of iqra 'is Rabbike'llezî halaka, the first sent down." Salama said to Jabir ibn Abdullah, "Which of the Quran is sent down first. it happened? "I asked him," Yâ eyyuhe'l-muddessir is. "I said (like you):" The first sentence of ikra 'bismi Rabbikellezî halaka, imiş. I inform you of what the Prophet (saas) told me. He said to me:

    I stayed in Hijab for a while. When I finished my residence there, I left. When I went down to the valley, I was called. I looked in front of me, my right, my left, my back, I couldn't see anything. When I looked up and looked up, what should I see? I collapsed on a throne between heaven and earth (Abu Dawud says: I fell to the ground), I came (to the house), and said to me: "O eyyuhe'l-muddessir ... = "O you who are dressed, disbelieve, howl your Lord, clean the urban." (Ahmed Abdurrahman et- Bennâ, MinhaM'l-Ma'bûd fî Tertibi Musnedi't-Tayâlisî Ebî Dâvud, el-Mektebetu'l-İslâmiyye. (Second edition) Beirut 1400, 11.7).

    b) The hadiths narrated by Bukhari, Muslim and Ahmed ibn Hanbal are quite clear in indicating that the first five verses of the Surah Alak are the first verses that were sent down from the Quran. Namely:


    Through Yahya ibn Bükeyr, Hz. Aisha narrates the following in the narration: The first revelation that came to the Prophet (sa) is the true dreams she saw while she was asleep. Whichever dream he saw, he would surely come out exactly like the daylight. Then he was made to love solitude, retreated to the Hira cave and worshiped many nights there. For this, he would take food with him. (When his mouth is finished) Hz. He would come to Hadice and take his food and go back to the cave. Finally, when he was in Hira cave, right came to him. The angel came to Him and said: "Read." said. Rasûlullah: "I am not a reader (I do not know how to read)." said. Hz. The Prophet said: "The angel took me and squeezed me until I was exhausted. Then he let it go and said:" Read. "I said again:" I cannot read. "He squeezed me for the second time until I was weak, then released and:" Read. " I said again: "I am not a reader." He caught me for the third time and squeezed me until I was exhausted, then let go and said: "Read in the name of the Creator Lord. He created man out of relevance. Read, my Lord is endless. ”Hz. Aisha continues to tell as follows:

    The Messenger of Allah returned with this (with the revelation that Jibril read to him), his heart trembling and Hz. Hadice bint entered near Huveylid, "Cover me, cover me." said. They covered it. Finally, when his fear passed, he informed Hadice about what had happened and said, "O Hadice, what is happening to me? I was afraid of myself (something is happening to me)." said. Hz. Hadice told Him: "Never! Do not be afraid! Nothing will happen to you. I swear by Allah that Allah will never disappoint you (He will not upset you). Because you are in the womb, Speaks the truth, carries the tired, gives to the poor, your guests. host, you help those who suffer. " saying that Hz. Hadice's uncle took him to his son Varaka ibn Nawfel ibn Asad ibn Abdu'I-Uzza. Varaka became a Christian in the time of Jahiliyya. He would write books in Hebrew and write in Hebrew (or Arabic) the amount of Bibles God wished. He was very old and his eyes were blind. Hz. Hadice said to him: "O son of my uncle, listen to your brother's son (Muhammad)." said. Varaka: "O brother, what do you see son?" asked Hz. The Prophet (pbuh) informed him about what he saw. Varaka said to Him: "This is the Nâmûs (which came to you) Allah sent down to Moses. I wish I was young and I was alive when your people brought you (from the town where you lived)." said. Hz. Prophet (sa): "Will they take me out?" said. Varaka: "Yes, whoever brings what you brought will definitely be hostile to him. If I reach your day, of course I will support you." He said, but soon Varaka passed away and the revelation ceased. Hz. The Prophet (pbuh) was very sad that the revelation was interrupted.

    In his hadith, which he reported from Jabir ibn Abdillâh al-Ansari, on the basis of the cessation of that revelation, through Ibn Shihab. The Prophet (pbuh) narrates: While I was walking, I heard a voice from the sky. What should I see when I turn my eyes to the sky; The angel who came to me in Hıra sat on a podium between the sky and the earth. I was so afraid of him that he immediately went home and said, "Cover me, cover me." I could say. Thereupon, Allah Tealâ sent down the verses "O you are in a veil, get up and warn ..." until "Beware of bad things" and after that revelation continued to come one after another. (Bukhârî, Bed'u'l-Vahy, 3; Tafsiru'l-Qur'an, Alak. 96/1; Muslim, Iman, 252-256: Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad, VI.232-233).

    c) It is also said that the first one to be sent down from the Quran is Surah Fatiha. The basis of this is the following news that Bayhaqi mentions in his Delâilu'n-Nubuwwa with the narration from Meysere Amr ibn Shurahbîl: The Prophet of Allah (pbuh), Hz. To Hadice: "When I was alone (one day) I heard someone calling me and I was afraid that something was happening to me (something madness or something like that might have broken me)." said. Hz. Hadice: "God forbid, of course, Allah will not do this to you. Because you entrust you, you are in the womb of your relatives and tell the truth of the word." said. Then Hz. When Abu Bakr came, Hz. Hadice told him Hz. He reported these words of the Prophet and asked him to take him to Varaka. Hz. Prophet (pbuh), Hz. They went to Varaka with Abu Bakr and Hz. The Prophet (pbuh) described what had happened to him as follows: "When I was alone, I heard someone behind me calling me" O Muhammad, O Muhammad. "I was afraid and quickly moved away." Varaka: "Do not do this when that call comes to you again. Stop there, listen to what he will say to you, then come to me and let me know what he said." said.

    Once again, Hz. While the Prophet was alone, the voice called out to him again: "O Muhammad, Bismillâhirrahmanirrahim, Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds ..." and he read the Fâtiha until "Veleddâllîn".


    In addition to the fact that there is no record of this being the first in this news mentioned by Bayhaqi, it is understood from the previous rumors that Hz. The Prophet (pbuh) had received revelation before he went to Varaka. Therefore, this news does not indicate that al-Fatiha was the first to be sent down. (Zerkanî, ibid. 1.95 96).

    d) It is also said that the first sent down from the Quran was Basmalah. Those who claim this view are based on the following narration that Vâhıdî cites in Ikrime and Hasen with his own bill: Ikrime and Hasen: "The first sent down from the Quran is Bismillâhirrahmanirrahim, and the first sent down is Ikra." However, this news is not clear in the indictment that Besmele was the first to be sent down alone. Probably, at the beginning of every sura that was sent down, the Basmalah was also sent down, except for the chapter of Tawba, which does not mean that the Basmalah was the first to be sent down (Zerkanî, ibid. 1.96).


    The Last Verses of the Qur'an

    a-) Ibn Juraij: "Beware of such a day that you will be returned to Allah that day. Then everyone will be given all they earned, and they will not be treated unfairly." (Bakara, 2/281) verse of the Prophet. It was revealed only nine nights before the death of the Prophet (saas) and no other revelation was sent after that. "

    In the narration from Ibn Umar, Hz. Prophet lived twenty-one days after this verse was revealed.

    Saîd ibn Jubayr and Muqâtil say that this verse came down seven nights before the death of our Prophet (saas), but there is a rumor that it was sent down three nights ago. Hz. The Prophet (pbuh) came closer to his death and that he descended only three hours ago, and our Prophet (sa) said: "Put this verse between the verse of deyn, that is to say, the verse of mdayaya and the verse of riba." There are also those who say that they have determined their location.

    b) In the narration from Ubayy ibn Ka'b, Ibn Abbas and Katâde, "There has been such a messenger from yourselves that your suffering is very heavy for him, he is very fond of you ..." (Tawba, 9/128) verse is the last sent down.

    A report in Imam Ahmad's Musnad, narrated from Ubayy ibn Ka'b, is as follows: They collected the Quran in mushafs under the caliphate of Abu Bakr. Some people were writing, Ubeyy ibn Ka'b was also dictating. From the chapter of Barâe, "When a chapter is sent down against them, they look at each other and worry," Does anyone see you? "And then they go. Allah turned their hearts over. Because they are such a people that they do not understand finely. (At-Tawba, 9/127), they thought that it was the last sent down from the Quran. Ubayy ibn Ka'b said to them, "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to me from now on" He is the owner of the great throne. ' He said, "Surely, there has come to you such a Prophet from yourselves that it will be very difficult for him to suffer ..." and continued as follows: "This is the last sent down from the Quran (Ahmad ibn). Hanbal, Musnad, V. 134).

    However, the first view is more famous and more sound. In the narration from Ibn Abbas, Jibril replaces this verse, "O Muhammad, put him on the head of two hundred and eighty from Bakara." He also stated his location by saying, and our Prophet also commanded his companions like that (Qurtubî. al-Jamiu li-Ahkâmi'l-Quran, Beirut 1408 / 1988,111,242).


    c) In a report that Bukhari reported from Ibn Abbas, Hz. The verse of Riba, which is the last sentence to the Prophet (saas), means "O those who have believed, be pious from Allah and leave (do not take) what is left from the riba. If you are truly believers." (Baqara, 2/278) is stated to be a verse.

    d) According to a report that Ibn Jarir mentions from Saîd ibnu'l-Müseyyeb, the verse of the verse of the last sent down verse: "O believers, write it when you borrow money for a while ..." (al-Baqara, 2 / 282) is a verse. According to Abu Ubayd's narration from Ibn Shihab in Fedâil, the last ones of the Quran that were sent down from the arsh are the verses of deyn and ribâ {Zerkanî, ibid. 1.97).

    Suyûti, saying that these Baqara, 278, 281 and 282 verses may have been sent down at once (in revelation) and in succession in the order of mushaf (Suyütî, al-itkan fi ulumi'l-Quran, tah. Beydar 1343, 1,102) wanted to find between these three views.


    e) According to the narration from Bari, "They ask for a fatwa from you. Say: Allah gives you the fatwa about the Kalâle ..." (Nisa, 4/176) verse of the Prophet. It is the last verse sent down to the Prophet (saas).

    However, Hafız Ibn Hajar said that this narration could be interpreted not as the absolute last verse of this verse, but as the last verse sent down about inheritance (See: ibnu'l-Cevzi, zâdu'l-Masîr, [X , Footnote at 255).

    f) From a report that Ibn Mardûye recited from Umm Salama through the Mujahideen, "Then, their Lord responded to their prayers" Of course, I will not lose the deeds of anyone working among you, male or female ... "(Alu Imran, 3/195 ) Although there are some who deduce that the verse is the last verse that was sent down, the news is not very clear about it (Zerkanî, ibid. 1,98).

    g) Although Bukhari and others reported from Ibn Abbas that he said: "Whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is Hell forever ..." (Nisa, 4/93) is the last sent down and there is nothing that abrogates him. This news is probably clear in the evidence that this verse is not the last sent down from the Quran, but the last one about the punishment of killing a believer (Zerkanî, ibid.1,98-99)

    h) In a report that Ibn Jarir narrated from Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, which is the end of Surah al-Kahf, "Whoever hopes to meet his Lord should do righteous deeds and associate nothing with Him in worshiping his Lord." Although it is mentioned that the verse (Kahf; 18/110) is the last verse that was sent down, Ibn Kesir said that this report was difficult and it was not abrogated (Zarqani ibid. 1.99-100).

    J) Tirmidhi and Judge Hz. In his narrations from Aisha, it is stated that he said that the last sent down from the Quran was the chapter of al-Maida. This statement of Aisha "is the last time sent down in haram and haram. The provisions in it were not abrogated in any way." and it should not be understood as the last one sent down from the Quran (Zerkanî, ibid. I, 99).


    j) Alliance seems to exist when the last sentence from the Quran is the Sura of Nasr. In the narration of Muslim from Ubeydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utbe through Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba, Harun ibn Abdullah and Abd ibn Humeyd, he tells me as follows: "O Ibn Utbe, do you know the last chapter that was sent down from the Quran? " he had asked. Me: Yes, it is Allah's nusrat and when the conquest comes ... "is the duration." I said. "You said true." (Muslim, Tafsir. 21).

    In a report narrated by Hafız Abu Bakr al-Bezzâr and Beyhaqi, the day in the middle of the pilgrimage days of the Farewell pilgrimage is given as the time of the coming of the surah (Ibn Kesir, ibid. VIIL529).

    Ibn Abbâs's "The last chapter that was sent down from the whole Quran is the duration of" Allah's nusrat and when conquest comes ... ". It was also narrated by Tabarani. (ibn Kesîr, ibid. VIII.53]).

    After Zerkanî gave these ten views on which verse was the last to be sent down from the Quran, "Beware of such a day that you will be returned to Allah. Then everyone will be given all they earned, and they will not be wronged." (Baqara, 2/281) preferred the view that the verse is the last verse that was sent down from the Quran (Zerkanî ibid U00).


    Mecca and Civilization:

    Of course, it is very useful to know the environment in which they descend, in understanding the meanings of the verses better and in drawing judgments from them. However, the environment of nuzul and the events that cause the verses to be revealed do not require the allocation of the decrees to be removed from them, and the verses are not limited to the conditions of nuzul. Perhaps the ones that cause or cause nuisance in the application of the decrees to be removed from the verses can be considered as a prototype, but there is nothing wrong as the provision of the verses to them. The fact that the verses of the Quran are indicative of the decrees will not be limited to time but will remain until the Day of Judgment and this means that the Quran is above time and places.


    But for example, in an environment where Muslims live as a weak minority in Makkah-i Muqarram, the verses that will be appropriate for the decrees to be imposed for them while living in an Islamic state and society in Medina will be different in terms of style, politics and style, and so will it. has been.

    Therefore, it is important to know whether the verses and surahs are mecca or civilized. The information about both the verses and the surahs being mecca or civilized can be found in the Quran or Hz. We cannot find it in the hadiths of the Prophet (saas). This information came to us as the oldest source, being transferred from the Companions. Therefore, the scholars accepted the statements of the Companions regarding the asbâb-ı nuzul in the setting of musnad hadith.

    However, when the information conveyed from the Companions on this issue was insufficient in few and even many places, procedural scholars put various measures in order to help determine the mecca and civilization of the verses. The number of Meccan and civilized verses and surahs, and which of them are regarded as mecca and which are civilized naturally vary according to these criteria. It is actually even more difficult to set a certain measure especially for surahs. There are many disagreements, especially when the surahs that take a long time between the beginning of the descending and the completion of the long suras are mecca or civilized. The criteria set by scholars in the fact that the verses are mecca-civilized can be summarized in the following items:

    a) Those who were sent down in and around Mecca are civilized, and those who were sent down in and around Madina-i Münevvere are civilized. Accordingly, those who were sent down in places such as Minâ, Arafat, Taif, Huneyn and those who were sent down in places such as Makki, Khaybar, Cuba, Bedr, and Uhud will be regarded as civilized.
    b) Regardless of the place of nuzul, those who were sent down before the migration are mecca, and those that were sent down after the migration are civilized. Accordingly, those who were sent down in Hudeybiye, Haccetti'l-wada and Mecca-i Mükerreme and its vicinity will also be regarded as civilized.
    c) The verses addressed to the people of Makkah regardless of the place and time of nuzul are mecca, and the verses addressed to the people of Madinah are civilized.

    The most widely used and famous of these criteria is the one based on hijrah, which we will base on in this work.

    Meccan and Civilized Characters:

    Although it is quite easy to determine the mecca or civilizational nature of the verses, unfortunately, the same convenience is not in question for the surahs. Although it can be thought that short surahs were sent down in one place at a time, it is not possible for long suras consisting of hundreds of verses to be sent down at once or in one place. Accordingly, there are many surahs whose verses started in Mecca-i Mükerreme and continued to be sent down in Madina-i Münevvere and completed in Madina-i Münevvere. The disagreement between scholars whether their surahs are mecca or civilized comes from this. However, it is possible to say that 93 surahs of the Quran were sent down in Makkah-i Mükerreme and 21 surahs were sent down in Madinah-i Münevvere, based on the wisdom when it started descending.


    It is possible to classify the surahs according to the date they were sent down:

    a) The surahs that were sent down in the first five years of the Mecca era are sixty suras: Fatiha (1). Isrâ (17), Kahf (18), Meryem (19), Taha (20), Enbiyâ (21), Kaf (50), Zâriyât (51), TÛr (52), Necm (53), Kamer (54), Rahman (55), Vakıa (56), Mülk (67), Pen (68), Hakka (69), Meâric (70), Nûh (71), Cinn (72), Müzzemmil (73), Müddessir (74), Kıyâme (75), İnşân (76), Mürselât (77), Nebe '(78), Nâziât (79), Abese (80), Takvîr (81), İnfıtâr (82), Mutaffifîn (83), İnşikak (84) , Bürûc, 85), Târik (86), A'lâ (87), Gâşiye (88), Fajr (89), Beled (90), Shams (91), Lei (92), Duhâ (93), Insirah ( 94), Tîn (95), Alak (96), Kadr (97), Beyyine (98), Zilzâl (99), Adiyât (100), Kâria (101), Takâsür (102), Asr (103), Hümeze ( 104), Fi! (105), Quraysh (106), Maun (107), Kevser (108), Unbeliever (109), Mesed (111), İhlâs (112), Felak (113), Nas (114).

    b) The chapters that were sent down in the middle of the Mecca period, that is, between the years 5-10, are seventeen: Ankebût (29), Rûm (30), Lokman (31), Sajdah (32), Saba) (34), Fât (35), Yâsîn (36), Sâffât (37), Sâd (38), Zümer (39), Mü'm in (Ghafir 40), Fussilet (or Sajdah 41), Shura (42), Zuhruf (43), Dühân (44), Câşe (45), Ahkâf (46).

    c) The chapters that were sent down at the end of the Mecca era, ie the last three years of this period, are fifteen: An'am (6), A'raf (7), Yunus (10), Hud (11) Yusuf (12), Ra'd (13), İbrahim (14), Hijr (15), Nahl (16), Hajj (22), Mu'minun, 23), Furkan (25), Shara '(26), Nemi (27), Qasas (28 ).

    d) The first two years of the Madina era, that is, the first and the second year of the hijrah, are six chapters that were sent down: Baqara (2). Anfal (8), Muhammed (Kıtal 47), Saff (61) to Jum (62), Taiga (64).

    e) In the third and fourth years of the Migration, three chapters were sent down. These are: Alu İmrân (3), Mücâdile (58) and Haşr (59).

    f) Hijrah 5-8. nine chapters were sent down in the years. These are: Nisa '(4), Maida (5), Nur (24), Ahzab (33), Fath (48), Hadîd (57), Mumtahine (60), Münâfikûn (63) and Talaq (65).

    g) The following four chapters were sent down in the ninth and tenth years of the Migration:

    Tawba (9), Hujurat (49), Tahrîm (66), Nasr (1 10). (Source: Ömer Rıza Doğrul. The Order of God, Translation and Commentary of the Quran, Ahmet Halil Yaşaroğlu Kitapçılık ve Kağıtçılık C l s X-XI).


    In determining whether the surahs were mecca or civilized, apart from the transmissions from the Companions and nature, the scholars took advantage of some of the stylistic features of the surahs and determined the common features of the mecca surahs as follows:

    a) Having a verse to prostrate in it.
    b) Presence of huruf-ı mukattaa at the beginning, except for Bakara and Ali İmrân.
    c) Including the parable of Adam and İblîs in it except for Baccarat.
    d) Including stories about the struggle of the past prophets and their ummah, except for Baccarat.
    d) Including stories about the struggle of the past prophets and their ummah, except for Baccarat.
    e) "O people!" to be addressed.
    f) Having the word "head" in it
    g) Including religious subjects such as oneness, prophethood, and the hereafter as content.

    Again, from this tribe: "O believers!" The surahs with addressed addresses can also be regarded as civilized, as well as the surahs that mention worship and treatment in general, the false beliefs of Jews and Christians, their murders, and their distortion of the holy books.

    In the preparation of this book, in addition to al-Kutubu'-Sitte (Dârimî's Sünen, Imam Malik's Muwatta, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal's Musnad, al-Kutubu't-Tis) and the vast majority of the interpretations of acumen have been scanned. If we leave the applied works aside, we can list the scanned works from beginning to end as follows:

    1. Abu'l-Hasen Ali ibn Ahmed al-Vâhıdî, en-Neysâbûrî, Esbâbu'n-Nuzûl, Beirut (Dâru Mektebetu'l-Hilâl) 1985 (Second edition).
    2.Celâluddin Abdurrahman ibn Ebî Bekr es-Suyûtî, Lübâbu'n-Nukûl fi Esbâbi'n-Nuzûl (in Tefsîru'l-Kur'âni'l-AzîmTefsîru'l-Celâleyn), Cairo (el-Mektebetu't-Ticâriyye) al-Kubrâ), undated.
    3.Ibn Hisham, as-Sîretu'n-Nebeviyye, verification: Mustafa as-Saka, İbrahim el-İbyârî and Abdu'l-Hafîz Şelebi, Beirut (Dâru İhyâi't-Turâsi'l-Arabî, 1391/1971. Third edition).
    4. Abu Abdurrahman Mukbil ibn Hâdî al-Wâdi'î, as-Sahîhu'l-Musned min Esbâbi'n-Nuzûl, Cairo (Mektebetu Ibn Taymiyye), 1408/1987.
    5.Abdülfettâh al-Kâdî, Esbâbu'n-Nüzûl mine's-Sahâbe ve'l-Müfessirîn, Cairo undated (First Edition)
    6. Abu Ja'fer Muhammed ibn Cerîr et-Tabari, Câmiu'l-Beyân fî Tafsiri'l-Qur'an, Dâru'l-Ma'rife, Beirut 1398/1978 (el-Matbaatu'l-Kubrâ al-Emîriyye Bulak-Egypt offset from 1323 edition).
    7. El-Hafiz Ibn Kesir, Tefsîru'l-Kur'âni'l-Azim, verification: Dr. Muhammed İbrahim el-Bennâ, Muhammed Ahmed Aşûr, Abdu'1-Azîz Guneym, Kahraman publications, Istanbul 1985.
    8. Abu'l-Ferec Cemaleddin Abdurrahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammed al-Cevzî al-Quraşî al-Bağdâdî, Zâdu'l-Mesîr fî İlmi't-Tafsir, al-Mektebu'1-Islami, Dimashk and Beirut 1385/1965 ( First edition).
    9.Abdurrahman ibnu'l-Kemâl Celâluddîn es-Suyûtî, Tefsîru'd-Durru'l-Mensûr fi't-Tefsîri'1-Me'sûr, Dâru'I-Fikr, Beirut 1409/1988 (Second edition).
    10. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmed al-Ansari al-Qurtubî, al-Jamiu li-Ahkâmi'l-Qur'an, Dâru'l-Kutubi'l-Ilmiyye, Beirut 1408/1988, (First edition).
    11.el-Imam al-Fahr er-Râzî, et-Tefsîru'l-Kebîr, Dâru'l-Kutubi'l-îlmiyye, Tehran undated.
    12.Şihâbuddîn as-Seyyid Mahmûd ei-Alûsî el-Bağdâdî, Rûhu'l-Ma'ânî fî Tefsîri'i'l-Kur'âni'l-Azîm ve's-Seb'i'l-Mesânî, İhyâu't-Turâsi 'l-Arabi, Beirut is undated.
    13. Nizamuddîn al-Hasen ibn Muhammed en-Neysâbûrî, Ğarâibu'l- Quran and Raghaibu'l-Furkan (near Tabari Tafsir), Cairo, Bulak 1323.
    14. Abdurrahman ibn Muhammed ibn Mahlûf as-Seâlibî, al-Cevâhiru'l- Hısân fi Tefsiri'l-Quran, Beirut undated,

    15. Izzuddin Ibnu'l-Esir Ebu'I-Hasen Ali ibn Muhammed el-Jezerî, Üsdü'I-Gâbe fiMa'rifeti's-Companion, Verification: Muhammed İbrahim el-Benna, Muhammed Ahmed Aşûr, Mahmud Abdülvehhab Fâyid, Cairo, undated (Dâru'ş-Şa'b publication).
    16. Tabarani, al-Mu'cemu'l-Kebir, verification: Hamdi Abdülmecid as-Salafi Bagdad 1979. (Esbabı Nuzül, Esbabı Nuzul from Fatiha to Nas, Read Esbabı Nuzul, Esbabı Nuzul Book, Reasons for the Qur'anic descent , Esbab-ı Nüzul, Esbabı Nuzul, The Book of Reasons for Descent of the Quran, Bedrettin Çetiner Esbabı, Esbab-ı Nüzul 2 Volumes



    CONTENTS

    Preface ..................................... VII
    Introduction ........................................ 1
    Istiaze and Basmalah ................ 12
    Surah Fatiha (1) .................... 13
    Surah Al-Baqara (2) ................... 14
    ÂIi Imran (3) ............. 125
    Nisa Chapter (4) ...................... 197
    The chapter of al-Maida (5) ................... 289
    An'am Sura (6) ..... 352
    A'raf (7) ..................... 392
    Surah al-Anfal (8) .................... 404
    The Chapter of Repentance (9) ................... 436
    The Surah Hd (11) ................... 501
    Yusuf (12) ................ 508
    Ra'd (13) ................... 519
    Abraham (14) .............. 531
    Surah al-Hijr (15) .................... 533
    Chapter An-Nahl (16) ................... 539
    The Surah al-Isra (17) ..................... 558
    Surat al-Kahf (18) ................... 582
    Surah Maryam (19) ............. 592
    Taha Sura (20) .................. 598
    The Surah of Anbiya (21) ............... 602
    The Pilgrimage (22) .................. 608
    The Believer (23) ......... 624
    The Surah An-Light (24) ..................... 628
    Surah Furkan (25) .............. 663
    The Surah of Shura '(26) ............... 674
    An-Naml (27) ................... 678
    Surah Al-Qasas (28) ................. 679
    Al-Ankabût (29) ............. 685
    The Chapter of Rum (30) ................... 694
    Surah Lokman (31) .............. 698
    The Prostration (32) ................. 705
    The chapter of al-Azhab (33) ........ 709
    Surah Saba '(34) ......... 740
    Surah al-Fath (35) .................... 744
    Yasin (36 ................... 747
    The Sâffât Sura (37) .................. 752
    Surah Yunus (10) ............ ..... 497
    Surah al-Sâd (38) ..................... 755
    Zumer (39) ................ 758
    The Surah of the Ghafir (Mu'min) (40) .... 768
    Fussılet Surah (41) .............. 770
    The Surah of the Shura (42) .................... 775
    Zuhruf (43) ................ 782
    Al-Dhuhan (44) ................ 787
    Surah al-Jayah (45) ................ 791
    Surah Ahkâf (46) .................. 795
    Surah Muhammad (Qata) (47)
    Surah Al-Fath (48) .................... 806
    The Hucurat (49) .............. 817
    Surah Al-Kaf (50) ...................... 832
    Zâriyât Sura (51) ................ 834
    The Surah of the Tr (52) ...................... 835
    Najm Surah (53) ................. 836
    Surah Kamer (54) ................ 840
    Ar-Rahman (55) ............ 843
    Surat al-Vakıa (56) ................. 844
    The Surah of Hadith (57) ................. 847
    The Chapter of the Mujahideen (58) ........... 852
    The al-Hashr (59) ................... 865
    Mumtahine (60) ....... 870
    As-Saff (61) .................... 876
    Surah to Fri (62) ............... 879
    The Opinion (63) ........ 882
    The Surah of Teğabun (64) ........... 891
    Talaq Surah (65) .................. 893
    The Surah of Tahrîm (66) ............... 896
    Surah of the Estate (67) ................... 900
    Pen Surah (68) ................ 901
    Surah Al-Hakka (69) ................ 905
    Surah Maâric (70) ............... 906
    Surah An-Nuh (71) ................... 909
    The Jinn (72) .................. 910
    The Chapter of Müzzemmil (73) ...... 915
    The Chapter of Müdddessir (74) ...... 917
    Al-Qiyama (75) ... 924
    The Human Sura (76) ................. 927
    Surah al-Murselât (77) ............ 930
    Chapter of Nebe '(78) ...., ........... 931
    Surah Naziât (79) ................ 932
    Abese Chapter (80) ................ 934
    At-Taqwir (81) ................. 936
    The Infidel (82) ................. 937
    The al-Mutaffifîn Sura (83) .......... 938
    Reconstruction Chapter 84) ............. 940
    Buruc Chapter 85) ................ 941
    As-Tari (86) 942
    Sura A'lâ (87) ..................... 943
    Surah al-Ghashiye (88) ............... 945
    Surah Fajr (89) ................... 946
    Municipal Office (90) ................. 948
    Surah al-Shams (91) ................. 949
    Surah Leu (92) .................... 950
    Surah Al-Duha (93) ................. 954
    Inshirah (94) ............... 957
    The Surah of Tîn (95) ...................... 958
    Alak Surah (96) ................... 959
    Surat al-Qadr (97) ................... 962
    The chapter of al-Bayyina (98) ............ 963
    Zelzele (99) .............. 964
    The Adiyât Sura (100) .............. 965
    Surat al-Qa'ria (101) ............... 966
    The Surah of Takâsur (102) ........... 967
    Asr (103) ................... 968
    Hümeze Sura (104) .......... 969
    Chapter Fîl (105) ..................... 970
    The Quraysh (106) ............ 971
    The Chapter of Maun (107) ............... 972
    Surah Kevser (108) ............. 973
    The Chapter of the Unbeliever (109) ........... 975
    Al-Nasr (110) ................. 977
    Surah Al-Laheb (Mesed) (111)
    The Chapter of İhlâs (112) ................ 980
    The Fate (113) ............... 982
    The Chapter of Nas (114) .................. 982
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